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Циганкова Т. М. , Петрашко Л. П., Кальченко Т. В. Міжнародна торгівля: Навч. посібник. – К.: КНЕУ, 2001. – 488с.
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J. C. Ingram. International trade: 2001. -441p.
International trade is one of forms IER.
International trade in wide understanding covers any exchange activity, both the goods, and other products of human work. Foreign trade is a trade of one country with others, which will consist of export and import. World trade is a set of foreign trade of the countries of the world. International trade in the goods is form IER that displays commodity-money attitudes that displays commodity-money attitudes sale between subjects IER concerning the goods of production of goods and is based on IEW. International trade is original display of the world commodity market. If in the national market more economic forces and a state policy cause movement of the goods, whether in the world market essential influence on international trade the external economic policy of the separate states of their groups has that. Movement of the national goods between the countries is limited, and some national goods do not act at world commodity circulation.
In the world commodity market the competitive goods are the best of the national goods. For successful functioning in the world market it is necessary for any state to have the external economic infrastructure, which can provide promotions of the goods or services from the manufacturer to the consumer in other countries. In this system the basic is material base and the specialized organizations for sale maintenance service.
The country which has no external economic infrastructure, compelled to sustain the big losses for providing of access to the external economic infrastructure of other states (for payment of transportation, insurance and bank services, services of trading houses). The condition of foreign trade is characterized by a number of parameters:
Size of total exports (import) of the country;
Trading balance of the country;
Size of export (import) of the given kind of production;
Trading balance of the country from the given kind of products.
Foreign trade at the present stage is extremely dynamic. It is caused appreciably by development of specialization and cooperation of manufactures internationally, a cancellation of some restrictions in international trade, high rates of development of the new industrial countries. Dominant positions in world trade will sit down the advanced countries, the greatest exporters of the world are: the USA, Germany, Japan, France, the Great Britain, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, and Belgium. Foreign trade at the present stage has turned to the important sphere economy anyone cranes, its influence on world economic development grows.[16, 64p]
Despite of the general tendency to increase, international trade tests significant fluctuations, which are caused by economic, power crisises, lack of raw material and other problems. Roles of foreign trade in economy of each country pass at unstable international trading connections. Thereof in structure of commodity circulation and in directions of the foreign trade streams constantly there are changes.
Today in the international society densities of raw material is essentially reduced and sharply the particle of finished articles raises. In such countries as Germany and Japan the particle of finished goods in export makes close 90 %. But in many countries, which develops, and in the countries of the East Europe the significant part in export is made with food and agricultural products, raw material, fuel.
High rates international trade in machines and equipment, production of the electrotechnical industry grows. In modern export more and more great value production are changing. It becomes expansions of trade by services, which stimulates international trade in the goods. Prominent feature of the present stage is increases in a particle of trade of the industrial countries between themselves, on it is necessary over 70 % of all world trade.
Economically less advanced countries try to strengthen the positions in world trade by its diversification - that is simultaneous development of its many directions and expansion of assortment of the goods. Features of development of international trade at the present stage:
Increase rates of increase of international trade compared with rates of growth of manufacture.
Changes in commodity structure of international trade for the benefit of finished goods and services.
Increases of a role of the countries, which develop in international trade.
Amplifications of a role of the external economic policy of the countries.[16, 73p]